Ecuador: Fortalecimiento Institucional y Negociaciones Efectivas en el Escenario Internacional

AutorMagda Lorena Giler Mendoza
CargoDocente UCE, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2942-9367
Páginas245-316
245Revista Facultad de Jurisprudencia RFJ No.4 Diciembre 2018
Ecuador: Fortalecimiento Institucional y Nego-
ciaciones Efectivas en el Escenario Internacional
Ecuador: Institutional Strengthening and Effective
Negotiations in the International Arena
Mgtr. Magda Lorena Giler Mendoza (Autora corresponsal)
Docente UCE
Dr. Rubén Méndez Reathegui, PhD-DSc
Docente titular principal PUCE
Artícu lo Origin al (Revisión)
RFJ, No. 4, 2018, pp. 245-316, ISSN 2588- 0837
RESUMEN: l as políticas económicas tomadas por el país en materia co-
mercial, a senti r de expertos y una parte de la socied ad, se visualiz an en
la comunidad inter nacional con cierto nivel de desconfian za e inseguri-
dad, por sus ca mbios normativos y de criterio que contrasta n con la con-
fianza en e l propósito firme del Gobierno de impulsa r la economía inter-
na a través de un modelo endógeno, que posicione tam bién a una nación
con decisiones soberanas. En este contexto, surge la i mportancia de las
instituciones q ue, a criterio de North (1990), constituyen el factor clave
en el desarrollo de un país. En ese sentido, el artículo discute las fisu-
ras que esta pola ridad de percepción genera en la imagen país, podrían
superarse de ma nera efectiva resa ltando el valor y credibilidad institu-
cional que armon izados con acciones comunicacionales redunden como
referente en efectivas negociaciones en el m arco internacional.
PALABRAS CLAVE: instituciones, acuerdos, comun icación, medios,
creencia.
AB ST RA CT: the country’s economic policies in commercial matters,
according to experts and a part of societ y, are visualized withi n the
internationa l community with a cer tain level of distrus t and insecurity,
due to their normative and orga nizational changes; this criterion
contrasts wit h the confidence in the Government’s firm intention to
boost the internal economy through a n endogenous model, which also
246Revista Facultad de Jurisprudencia RFJ No.4 Diciembre 2018
positions a nation wit h sovereign decisions. In this context ar ises the
importance of in stitutions that, according to North (1990), constitute
the key factor in the countr y’s development. The fissures created in
the country’s image by this polarity of perception can be effectively
overcome by highlig hting the institution al value and credibility, which
are harmoni zed with communicative actions as a reference point in
effective negotiations w ithin the internationa l framework.
KEY WORDS: institutions, agreements, communication, media,
cultural b eliefs.
INTRODUCTION
The construct ion of a new country includes the application of inter nal
and externa l policies, which have had a di rect impact on the perception
of Ecuadorians and the international commun ity, regarding the
country’s image and the benefits they receive65. Ecuador has some
experiences in wh ich it has undergone positionin g on the international
scene, as well as on the commerc ial one (emblematic products such as:
cocoa, banan a), and in relation to strategic sectors with its proposal
for a renewable energy matri x. Public opinion is divided -accordi ng to
interests- bet ween the discourse for the recovery of national identit y,
the strengthening of the productive matrix, a nd the discriminatory
internationa l economic measures that place Ecuador as a country
-according to the criteria of some international experts and in stark
contrast to the government discourse- as high context and low
credibil ity.
65 This document constitutes a contribution to the Economic Law Group (GI-Qui-
to-012-2018). It is part of the activities of the external research project “Regula-
tory Improvement and RIA (Regulatory Impact Analysis) in Ecuador and Peru”. It
should be noted that the document’s roadmap was drawn -initially- in 2016 (date
of the collaboration between the authors) and includes aspects related to previous
research on strategic communication modeling based on institutional strengthe-
ning as a generator of trust, legal-social legitimacy and credibility. This in order to
evaluate the country image of Ecuador and the establishment of mechanisms for
the promotion and realization of more effective negotiations in the international
scenario. Therefore, it derives from the authors’ attempt to generate a theoreti-
cal-conceptual synergy between neo-institutional analysis, law and strategic com-
munication as areas of knowledge. We wish to thank Ms. Renata Yunda López for
her participation as a research assistant.
247Revista Facultad de Jurisprudencia RFJ No.4 Diciembre 2018
But credibility and confidence do not arise as a result of the
persuasiveness of messages, as th is is based on public policies and
their normative effects, which lead to inst itutional strengtheni ng.
Institut ional actions are vi sualize d as a paid benefit towards the c itizens.
This complex inst itutional mea ning is t hen reflected in social action,
through which individuals find purpose in community, and also being
a participation mech anism where manifest i nterests are transferred.
This institutional ity then becomes a public space for the interaction of
individuals in communit y, in which they identify their interests, their
problems and find a par ticipatory form of socia l solution. Institutions
thus legitim ize themselves and continue tha nks to the citizens, whi le at
the same time being a democratic ref lection. However, in structu rally
weak systems -and unfortun ately, very much like the Ecuadorian one-
institut ions behave under their own canon s, perpetuatin g themselves as
autonomous entities, whose monopolistic tendency i s carried by a line
of social indi fference that leads to a lack of credibilit y and a weak image.
As Mendez (2016) points out regarding i nstitutionality, and in
reference to North’s theory (1990:24)66, in a context of globalization
such as the cur rent one, posed by a social market economic system,
nationa l borders are t raversed by u navoidable econom ic, commerci al,
financial and monetar y phenomena whose ratio has deep institutional
implications and its own rules of the ga me. This definition paper thus
presents a vision of var iation in the beliefs of the citizensh ip out of the
need for institutional strengt hening as a ba sis in the consolidation of
a consistent and credible image that benefits national interests in the
internationa l scenario. It is here where the analysis of institutional
changes, and t heir proximity to the revitali zation of a country image
aimed towards negoti ations and effective decision-maki ng, is inserted.
1. BACKGROUND
The path traveled by Ecuador throughout its political and economic
history, like the developing count ries, marks a high and low within
its various levels, a ffected by disti nct instabilities arising from
the economic, political and social spheres. Within the economic,
identified with a seal of “third world,” “dependent,” “developing,”
66 North (1990) emphasizes decision-making by considering those interests of others
which are strategic to the problem

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