El Impacto de la Declaración del Estado de Emergencia en los Derechos Fundamentales de los Ciudadanos

AutorSandrine Le Teno
e Impinge of the State of Emergency on the
Fundamental Freedoms
Sandrine Le Teno,
Université Catholique de Lille, Faculté Libre de Droit, 58 rue du port, 59000 Lille, Francia.
Correo electrónico: letenosandrine@gmail.com
Recibido/Received: 26/02/2017
Aceptado/Accepted: 27/08/2017
Note to the reader:  e author is not a native speaker.
is article is about the state of emergency in France, which will be in force until the 15th July
2017. After explaining the previous declaration of the state of emergency and its consequences,
the article points out the con ict between the declaration of the state of emergency in France
and fundamental freedoms as they are enshrined in French Law (law of 3rd April 1955 and
law of 20th November 2015) as well as European (European Convention on Human Rights)
and International (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights) law and explains
under which conditions the state of emergency can be lawful even if it implies a reduction or a
derogation to fundamental freedoms which are supposed to be protected by the national and
international pieces of legislation.
France, State of emergency, Extension, Fundamental Freedoms, European Convention on
Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
El Impacto de la Declaración del Estado de Emergencia en los Derechos Fundamentales de
los Ciudadanos
El presente artículo tiene por objetivo analizar a profundidad la declaratoria de estado de
emergencia en Francia, que durará hasta el 15 de julio de 2017. Tras explicar las implicaciones
y consecuencias del estado de emergencia, esta investigación pretende dilucidar el con icto
existente entre este y las libertades de los ciudadanos con el  n de evidenciar las contradicciones
que supone este hecho. El documento tiene por base jurídica la legislación nacional francesa
(ley del 3 de abril de 1955 y ley del 20 de noviembre de 2015), La Convención Europea de
Derechos Humanos y el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos. Estos textos legales
permiten comprender la legalidad de la declaración del estado de emergencia en un Estado
determinado aunque esto implique una limitación a derechos fundamentales de los ciudadanos
plasmados en normativa nacional tanto como internacional.
Palabras Clave
Francia, estado de emergencia, Derechos Fundamentales, Convención Europea de Derechos
Humanos, Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos.
1. Introduction
Two years ago, on January 7th, 2015 the satiric newspaper Charlie Hebdo was attacked by Al-
Qaeda1 and twelve people died. Two days later, a hostage taking took place in a kosher shop
in Vincennes, Paris and four people died. Following these attacks, on November 13th, 2015,
one hundred and thirty people died and hundreds were injured in the terrorist attack of the
Bataclan, an auditorium in Paris. Simultaneously, in the Stade de France, three suicide bombers
acted in front of the stadium without hurting anyone2.
e terrorist attack of the Bataclan was the biggest one in France and was perpetrated by the
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant3 (onwards “ISIL”). e President of the Republic, François
Hollande, declared the state of emergency on the entire territory of France and the closing of
the boundaries, in order to try to stop further terrorist attacks and prevent suspects from eeing.
It was the fourth time that the state of emergency was declared on the whole metropolitan
territory of France.
e state of emergency is a situation of public emergency, which can be dened as a temporary
system of rules to deal with an extremely dangerous or dicult situation4. It involves a derogation
of usual human rights standards and a change in the distribution of constitutional powers5.
2. Historic evolution
2.1. e state of emergency through 1955 - 2015
In order to understand the importance and the impact of this declaration, an analysis of the
historical facts which led to the establishment of the regime of the state of emergency is necessary.
On April 3rd, 1955, the Parliament voted the law creating the state of emergency and, thus,
establishing a new state of extraordinary powers. e only existing one was the state of siege,
which gave increased power to the army, by transferring the powers of the administrative police
and judging civil cases to the military authority6. At that time, the government was trying to
Le Figaro
Mapping Militant Organizations: The Islamic 
      
  Emergency Powers – Science and technique
of democracy No.12
       Revue Générale du Droit 

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