Marco institucional: propiedad intelectual y el impacto en las operaciones de importación y exportación en Ecuador

Autor:Paulina Valle Segura, Rubén Méndez Reátegui
Páginas:9-42
Revista de Derecho. Vol. 8 (2019), pp. 9-42. ISSN: 1390-440XeISSN: 1390-7794
Recepción: 10-2-2019. Aceptación: 12-4-2019. Publicación electrónica: 6-6-2019
https://doi.org/10.31207/ih.v8i0.202
vol. 8 (2019), p. 9
INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK: INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY AND THE IMPACT ON IMPORT AND EXPORT
OPERATIONS IN ECUADOR
MARCO INSTITUCIONAL: PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL Y EL IMPACTO EN LAS OPERACIONES DE
IMPORTACIÓN Y EXPORTACIÓN EN ECUADOR
Paulina Valle Segura*
Rubén Méndez Reátegui**
Abstract: This paper introduces a review based on the economic analysis of
the law. In that sense, it analyzes the application of border measures in terms
of the right and its consequences. This mechanism of precaution applied
by the customs in the air, maritime and terrestrial limits foresees the
suspension of the customs clearance of the merchandise that may infringe.
He therefore resorts to the theoretical-descriptive method to make a
consistent description in a context where there are ample perverse incentives
for the import and/or export of unauthorized copies. The first section focuses
on facilitation against regulation and customs control of trade. Next, the
second part addresses the relevance of customs control of import and export
goods in Ecuador. The third explores the importance of border measures
(criminal and unfair competition). The fourth section considers in a
theoretical sense the impact on transaction costs in import and export
operations. Finally, the document develops a comparison between national
norms and procedures with the type of request for a border measure made
by other countries of the Andean community of the United Nations. It is
concluded that the adoption of the mechanism can generate high
administrative and transaction costs in import and export operations, due to
* Official of the Ecuadorian National Cu stoms Service (SENAE) and ind ependent
researcher (Quito, Ecuador). paulyvallesegura@hotmail.com
** Full Professor of Law at Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Quito).
rcmendez@puce.edu.ec
Paulina Valle Segura & Rubén Méndez R eátegui
| v. 8 (2019), p. 10
the absence of rules of the game and more efficient automated procedures
and under a continuous improvement scheme.
Keywords: Customs, Transaction Costs, Rules of the Game, Institutions,
Border Measures
Resumen: El artículo introduce una revisión a partir del análisis económico
del derecho. En ese sentido, analiza la aplicación de medidas en frontera en
términos de el derecho y sus consecuencias. Este mecanismo de
precaución aplicado por las aduanas en los límites aéreos, marítimos y
terrestres prevén la suspensión del despacho de aduanas de las mercancías
que puedan infringir. Recurre por lo tanto al método teórico-descriptivo
para efectuar una descripción consistente en un contexto donde existen
amplios incentivos perversos para la importación y/o exportación de copias
no autorizadas. La primera sección se enfoca en la facilitación contra el
reglamento y el control aduanero del comercio. A continuación, la segunda
parte aborda la relevancia del control aduanero de bienes de importación y
exportación en ecuador. La tercera explora la trascendencia de las medidas
en frontera (ámbito penal y competencia desleal). La cuarta sección
considera en un sentido teórico el impacto en los costos de transacción en
las operaciones de importación y exportación. Finalmente, el documento
desarrolla una comparación entre normas y procedimientos nacionales con
el tipo de solicitud de medida de frontera realizada por otros países de la
comunidad andina de naciones unidas. Se concluye que la adopción del
mecanismo puede generar altos costos administrativos y de transacción en
las operaciones de importación y exportación, debido a la ausencia de
reglas del juego y procedimientos automatizados más eficientes y bajo un
esquema de mejora continua.
Palabras clave: Aduanas, costos de transacción, reglas del juego,
instituciones, medidas extranjeras
Summary. I. Introduction. II. Facilitation against regulation and customs control
for trade. III. Customs control of import and export goods in Ecuador. IV. Border
measures: criminal scope and unfair competition. IV.1. Sanctions in Criminal
Matters in Ecuador. IV.2. Provisions Regarding Unfair Competition. V. Impact on
transaction costs in import and export operations. V.1. Comparison between
national standards and procedures and European Community regulations and
procedures. V.2. Comparison between national standards and procedures in Perú
and Colombia. a) Border Measures in Peru. b) Border Measures in Colombia. c)
Synthesis. VI. Conclusions. References.
Institutional framework: Intellectual Property and the impact on import and export
| v. 8 (2019), p. 11
I. INTRODUCTION
As a function of trade acceleration and the development of information
and communication technologies, intellectual work is more vulnerable to
copying and counterfeiting and collateral effects (OECD, 2007; Mendoza &
Ríos, 2013). Countries have thus been forced to implement border measures
aimed protecting trademarks and copyrights; these precautionary
mechanisms, applied by customs in the air, maritime and land limits, provide
for the suspension of customs clearance for possibly infringing goods while
the competent authorities analyze the alleged violation.
However, the enforcement of intellectual property rights should under
no circumstances hinder trade facilitation or cause unnecessary delays
(Schmitz, 2013). In Ecuador and in the countries that form part of the
Andean Community of Nations (CAN), the mechanisms adoption causes
high transaction and administrative costs in import and export operations,
due to the absence of specific rules of the game (legal-economic institutions,
as described by Méndez & Alosilla, 2015) and of an automated procedure
(under a continuous improvement scheme that reaches beyond a command
and control approach) that stimulates the active participation of owners and
proxies, importers, exporters and competent authorities (SENAE and others
entities responsible for command and control ). This article thus proposes a
theoretical review using an economic analysis of the law applied to this
mechanisms treatment, particularly in the area of customs1.
II. FACILITATION AGAINST REGULATION AND CUSTOMS
CONTROL FOR TRADE
Commercial exchange implies transit between borders, whose norms
and procedureswhen not internationally harmonizedcreate on-going
1 This document constitutes a contribution to the Economic Law Group (GI-Qui-to-012-
2018). It is part of the activities of the external research project Regulator y Improvement
and RIA (Regulatory Impact Analysis) in Ecuador and P eru. It should b e noted that the
document is roadmap was drawninitiallyin 2017 (date of the collaboration between the
authors) a nd includes aspects related to previous research on the law and economics of
foreigner measures and regulation of property rights. Therefore, it derives from the authors
attempt to generate a conceptual synergy between transactional co sts econo mics, neo-
institutional analysis, the impact and technical assessment of legal rules, intellectual
property and foreigner measures and customs administration as areas of knowledge. We
wish to thank Ms. Renata Yunda López and Mr. Rene Galvez Delgado for their participation
as research assistants.

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