The La pandemia del Covid-19 y los derechos de la persona en términos de derecho público y privado

AutorEvgen Kharytonov, Olena Kharytonova, Denis Kolodin, Maxym Tkalych
CargoDoctor of Legal Science. Professor of Civil Law Department and Head of same Department at National University 'Odesa Law Academy' (Odesa, Ukraine)/Doctor of Legal Science. Professor of Intellectual Property and Corporate Law Department and Head of the same Department at National University 'Odesa Law Academy' (Odesa, Ukraine)/Ph.D., Associate ...
Páginas225-250
Revista de Derecho. Vol. 9 (II) (2020), pp. 225-250. ISSN: 1390-440X eISSN: 1390-7794
Recepción: 15-6-2020. Aceptación: 28-8-2020. Publicación electrónica: 6-10-2020
https://doi.org/10.31207/ih.v9i2.253
vol. 9 (II) (2020), p. 225
THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND THE RIGHTS OF THE
INDIVIDUAL IN TERMS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC LAW
LA PANDEMIA DEL COVID-19 Y LOS DERECHOS DE LA PERSONA EN TÉRMINOS DE DERECHO
PÚBLICO Y PRIVADO
Evgen Kharytonov*
Olena Kharytonova**
Denis Kolodin ***
Maxym Tkalych****
Abstract: The principles of adjusting the regulation of civil relations in the
context of the Covid-19 pandemic are analyzed. The admissibility of
restricting human rights in the context of the conflict of private and public
interests are researched. Besides, the authors tried to determine the optimal
algorithm of government actions aimed at preventing the spread of the
epidemic. The main approach to the understanding of human rights in the
article is based on Dworkin's concept of rights as trumps. A system of such
* Doctor o f Legal Science. Professor o f Civil Law Department and Head of same
Department at National University Odesa Law Academy (Odesa, Ukraine).
Corresponding Member of National Academy of Law Sciences of Ukraine. Honored
Science an d Technology Worker of Ukraine. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5521-0839.
zharuton@gmail.com
** Doctor of Legal Science. Professor of Intellectual Property and Corporate Law
Department and Head of the same Department at National University Odesa Law
Academy (Odesa, Ukraine). Corresponding Member of National Academy of Law
Sciences of Ukraine. Honored Science and Technology Worker of Ukraine.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9681-9605. lh2512@gmail.com
*** Ph.D., Associate Professor of Criminal law Department, Head of Civil law and Economic
Justice Faculty of National University Odesa Law Academ y (Odesa, Ukraine).
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6368-0849. kolodinodessa@gmail.com
**** Associate Professor of Civil Law Department at Zaporizhzhia National University
(Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine). https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4224-7231. maxx.tkalich@gmail.com
Evgen Kharytonov, Olena Kharytonova, Denis Kolodin & Maxym Tkalych
| v. 9 (II) (2019), p. 226
categories as “a man”, “a private person”, “natural private rights”, “private
law” and “national civil law” is analyzed. The conclusion is that the importance
of the category of “natural” human rights is underestimated, which
exacerbates the problem of ensuring human rights in a pandemic, when the
state actively uses public law to cope with the crisis. As a result, there is a
conflict of basic principles of private and public law: “everything is allowed
except what is prohibited by law” vs. “only what is allowed by law is
possible”. It is proposed to assume that the usual way of the legal existence
of a person is that he/she acts as a participant in civil relations of a private
type, even in a pandemic. Private relations, which arise during the quarantine
period, are proposed to be regulated mainly by private law methods, limiting
the influence of the state. This will allow us to reach a compromise of private
and public interests, without restricting the rights of individuals voluntarily.
Keywords: Human Rights, Private Person, Private Law, Public Law,
Pandemic Covid-19
Resumen: Se analizan aquí los principios de adecuación de la regulación
de las relaciones civiles en el contexto de la pandemia Covid-19, así como
la admisibilidad de restringir los derechos humanos e individuales,
atendiendo al conflicto de intereses públicos y privados. Se busca
determinar el algoritmo óptimo de las acciones gubernamentales destinadas
a prevenir la propagación de la epidemia, a través de la concepción de los
derechos como triunfos de Dworkin y de las nociones de hombre,
persona privada, derechos naturales privados, derecho privado y
derecho civil nacional. Se concluye que hoy se subestima la categoría de
natural de los derechos humanos, lo que se agrava durante la pandemia,
cuando el Estado utiliza activamente el derecho público para salir de la
crisis. Como resultado, existe un conflicto de principios básicos del derecho
público y privado: todo está permitido excepto lo prohibido por la ley vs.
solo se puede hacer lo permitido por la ley. Se propone que se asuma de
forma habitual la existencia jurídica de una persona como partícipe en las
relaciones civiles de tipo privado, incluso durante una pandemia. Así, las
relaciones privadas que surgen durante el período de cuarentena deben
regularse principalmente por las reglas de derecho privado, limitando la
influencia del Estado. Esto nos permitirá llegar a un compromiso de los
intereses públicos y privados, sin restringir los derechos de las personas de
forma voluntaria.
Palabras clave: Derechos Humanos, Persona privada, Derecho Privado,
Derecho Público, Pandemia Covid-19

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