Ius Humani. Revista de derecho

Universidad de los Hemisferios Ius Humani
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  • Public Interest as a Category of Administrative and Legal Science

    The article examines the content and features of the public interest as a category of administrative and legal science. The main features of public interest are clarified, namely: (i) it is a set of certain needs (values); (ii) there may be needs of the whole society, as well as its groups or individual citizens; (iii) is provided at the initiative of the directly interested subject or public administration; (iv) these interests are recognized by the state, can be normatively fixed; (v) aimed at ensuring human rights and freedoms; (vi) are provided by subjects of public administration. It is established that the content of public interest as an administrative-legal category follows from the essence of general interest and is individualized by the content of administrative-legal relations. Public interest is defined as a set of certain needs (values) of a person or society, aimed at ensuring and protecting human rights and freedoms and implemented in the activities of public administration. It is established that the public interest reflects the interests of society as a whole or an individual, but its needs may become significant for society as a whole. The types of public interests are distinguished depending on the sphere of realization, territory of distribution and number of persons expressing public interest.

  • The Impact of Deviant Behavior on Juvenile Delinquency: Current State of the Problem

    The relevance of this research stems from the fact that in the modern world, the problem of juvenile delinquency is especially acute. Economic inequality, mass globalization, free access to the means of communication, the development of democracy, as well as various social phenomena often cause negative reactions among adolescents. The research goal was to give a comprehensive scientific substantiation of the problem of juvenile delinquency, to consider the impact of deviant behavior on its emergence, to identify its causes and preventive measures, and to develop proposals for their improvement. The methodological basis of the research included a set of techniques and methods for studying this phenomenon of social life. The study revealed that juvenile delinquency remains a serious problem. The negative trend related to the worsening economic situation and lowering living standard in Russia, including minors, results in the higher psychological and emotional overload and the deepening crisis in family relations, which leads to the reemergence of such social phenomenon as child neglect. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that this paper assesses the criminological features of the current state of juvenile delinquency. The theoretical significance of the research includes the deeper scientific analysis of the problem, which provides a scientific basis for its further development. The practical significance implies that the theoretical conclusions obtained in this study can be used for further study of juvenile delinquency and developing measures for its prevention.

  • Public Administration and the Protection of Private Rights: Questioning Its Recognition and Application Under Ukrainian Law

    Every society needs the recognition and protection of the rights of its citizens, and this becomes more proper for every administration in respecting this protection for the common good of its society. In this article, international experience of protecting private rights in the sphere of public administration has been analyzed. On the basis of the researched information the authors have provided concrete ways of implementing the specified international experience into domestic state and his legal system. The essence and characteristic features of legal ways to protect the legitimate interests of private individuals within public relations have been clarified among other things. The genesis of the development of the ways to protect private rights in the sphere of public administration has been analyzed. Particular attention has been paid to the insufficient capacity of Ukraine to ensure the inviolability of private rights, freedoms and interests of the entities of public legal relations, compared to the developed countries of Western Europe and North America. At the same time, the emphasis has been made on the gradual increase in the level of democracy and the rule of law in Ukraine over the last 20 years. It has been claimed that a special “acceleration” of the indicated reforms took place immediately after two socially important events, namely the Orange Revolution of 2004 and the Revolution of Dignity of 2013-2014. However, the so-called “energy fervor” gained at the beginning of the reform is slowing down in Ukraine.

  • Assessing and Evaluating the General Legal Characteristics of War Crimes: A Basic Necessity or a Confused Platform

    The general legal characteristics of war crimes allow to comprehensively study the indicated acts, to understand their essence, which in turn should facilitate and improve the quality of criminal qualification of criminal offenses against performing the established procedure of active service. The need to form general legal characteristics of war crimes is due to the fact that the sphere of public relations related to active service is intersectoral, since it is simultaneously regulated by the norms of various branches of law. The authors have found out the main features of war crimes and have carried out their characteristics by determining the specific features of their regulation both by criminal and other branches of law. The authors have provided an analytical basis for this in order to evaluate the provisions of regulatory legal acts regulating the procedure of active service and determine the main features of war crimes. The findings of the research was that war crimes infringe the statutory order of performing active service, and the subjects of such illegal acts are military personnel, persons liable to military duty and personnel with reserve obligations during the battle assembly. The general legal characteristics of war crimes is formed taking into account criminal and legal features of the specified criminal offenses and defines specific features of active service; the established procedure for performing active service; military personnel, persons liable to military duty and personnel with reserve obligations during the battle assembly as subjects of crime.

  • Respect of Human Rights and Freedoms During the Examination of a Person Within Criminal Proceedings: Issues of Theory and Practice

    Even though it becomes the responsibility of crime official to carry out the investigative phase so as to established commission, such procedure should be done by respecting the fundamental right of everyone. A person’s examination within criminal proceedings belongs to a range of investigative actions of restrictive nature. In this regard, the respect of human rights and freedoms becomes especially relevant during its conduction. According to experience in this field, law enforcement officers have questions on determining the subjects of this procedural action, the limits of applying coercion and the involvement of attesting witnesses. Systematic analysis of the Art. 241 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine demonstrated that the provisions set out in this Article are not sufficiently clear. That gives origins to the violations of human rights and freedoms. The authors have made a categorical conclusion about the need to improve the current regulations of the procedure for conducting examination within criminal proceedings. According to the results of the research, the authors have introduced scientifically sound proposals to improve the Ukrainian legislation concerning the procedure for conducting the investigation process.

  • Legal Nature and Inheritance of Virtual Property in Ukraine and the World: Current Status, Problems, Prospects

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in such a phenomenon as a digital inheritance. Sooner or later, users of social networks or online games begin to think about the status of their virtual assets, as they become valuable since users have spent a lot of time to earn them. However, legislation on digital inheritance remains either imperfect or does not answer the question of what happens to digital property after one’s death. The study aimed to describe the situation in the field of digital inheritance through the concepts of virtual property and IT objects. We used systemic, formal-legal, and hermeneutic methods to describe the state of the art in the area of virtual property and digital inheritance through the lens of jurisprudence. The found results suggest that digital inheritance is a growing problem due to imperfect or absent legislation with simultaneously increasing role and importance of the virtual world and digital assets in everyday life. Accordingly, we have found that court decisions set the tone for the development of the legislative process in this field, but at the moment, we are only at the beginning of the creation of solid and harmonized legislation towards digital inheritance. It is also determined that the concept of virtual property does not contradict the general principles of civil law, so it can be applied in the context of digital inheritance.

  • Ley escrita e interpretación, según Gény

    El objetivo de este artículo es comprender la relación entre la ley escrita y la interpretación en los términos propuestos por François Gény, atendiendo a la descripción del fenómeno interpretativo y los elementos de su racionalidad. Este trabajo está estrictamente referido a su obra Método de interpretación y fuentes en Derecho Privado positivo, del cual establecemos las nociones de ley, interpretación y racionalidad que desarrolló el autor, así como sus principales ideas sobre la interpretación extensiva, la analogía, las reglas lógicas y los casos en que los elementos extrínsecos a la ley escrita se pueden considerar en la práctica de la interpretación. Terminaremos este artículo considerando algunas referencias del autor al método de la libre investigación científica, como sus reflexiones sobre los límites de la interpretación disociada de la voluntad del legislador. Teniendo en cuenta que esta es una investigación teórica, cuya fuente son textos impresos, la metodología empleada ha requerido del uso de los métodos histórico-lógico y analítico sintético. Como método de análisis de contenido se ha recurrido al análisis textual de los documentos considerados en la investigación.

  • Some Preliminary Considerations for the Legal-Economic Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility

    This review article presents some preliminary considerations and describes the evolution of corporate social responsibility, which is necessary for an informed study of this "tool". In that sense, the authors resort to a preliminary exploration of the conceptual framework of the legal-economic approach presenting social responsibility and the relationship that subsists with "property rights", the relevance of "transaction costs", among other aspects. They also explore the interrelation between social responsibility and its forms of legal exercise and its characterization in areas that involve linking it with workers, unions, and consumers. The aim is to highlight its importance and build a contribution where social responsibility will be studied from an analytical and empirical perspective. Thus, it is sought to conclude that the company considers implementing and complying with good corporate governance standards since they expand the shared vision of business management, effectively allocating resources to obtain the most significant benefits of establishing a corporate social responsibility regime.

  • Derecho de las relaciones laborales en el sector público y la cuarta regla del principio protector

    El presente trabajo se centra en desarrollar la cuestión de las relaciones laborales en el sector público, y más en concreto, en la esfera del carácter tuitivo que despliega el ordenamiento jurídico uruguayo sobre el vínculo funcional entre el Estado como empleador y el funcionario público como trabajador. El enfoque que se tomará sobre la temática planteada será desde la visión de los principios generales del Derecho del Trabajo, y la postura constructiva silogística con una mirada de tertium genus entre el Derecho del Trabajo y el Derecho Administrativo para el fenómeno de las relaciones laborales en el sector público. En base a esa idea de formación y construcción común entre ambas ramas del Derecho, se intentará plantear la figura de una cuarta regla en la forma de actuación del principio protector del Derecho del Trabajo. Se buscará definir cuáles serían los impactos y alcances de la presencia de este nuevo instituto jurídico con afán tuitivo de los funcionarios públicos y aportando un nuevo elemento distintivo para seguir pensando si estamos ante una nueva rama jurídica autónoma o no.

  • Ley orgánica de comunicación comentada, reseña

    Este trabajo contiene tanto una reseña de la obra Ley Orgánica de Comunicación comentada del doctor Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez- Villalba, como un breve comentario a las profundas reformas hechas a esta ley en febrero de 2019. Se muestran aquí algunas luces y sombras de la reforma, siguiendo los comentarios del autor. Además se explica aquí cómo esta obra se inscribe en la colección Digesto ecuatoriano que la Corporación de Estudios y Publicaciones (CEP), junto a la Universidad de Los Hemisferios, está sacando adelante. En la primera parte hablamos sobre el autor y sobre la oportunidad de la obra. A continuación, en la parte II hablamos del objetivo de la reforma. Finalmente, en la parte III incluimos algunas conclusiones que nos ayudan a valorar la reforma y la obra comentada. Aunque sea muy positivo lo que se ha andado para reconquistar la libertad de expresión, siguiendo al autor, se echa de meno ahí la desaparición de los principios de la comunicación, que han quedado solo como estándares doctrinales en nuestro medio.

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