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  • Public Interest as a Category of Administrative and Legal Science

    The article examines the content and features of the public interest as a category of administrative and legal science. The main features of public interest are clarified, namely: (i) it is a set of certain needs (values); (ii) there may be needs of the whole society, as well as its groups or individual citizens; (iii) is provided at the initiative of the directly interested subject or public administration; (iv) these interests are recognized by the state, can be normatively fixed; (v) aimed at ensuring human rights and freedoms; (vi) are provided by subjects of public administration. It is established that the content of public interest as an administrative-legal category follows from the essence of general interest and is individualized by the content of administrative-legal relations. Public interest is defined as a set of certain needs (values) of a person or society, aimed at ensuring and protecting human rights and freedoms and implemented in the activities of public administration. It is established that the public interest reflects the interests of society as a whole or an individual, but its needs may become significant for society as a whole. The types of public interests are distinguished depending on the sphere of realization, territory of distribution and number of persons expressing public interest.

  • The Impact of Deviant Behavior on Juvenile Delinquency: Current State of the Problem

    The relevance of this research stems from the fact that in the modern world, the problem of juvenile delinquency is especially acute. Economic inequality, mass globalization, free access to the means of communication, the development of democracy, as well as various social phenomena often cause negative reactions among adolescents. The research goal was to give a comprehensive scientific substantiation of the problem of juvenile delinquency, to consider the impact of deviant behavior on its emergence, to identify its causes and preventive measures, and to develop proposals for their improvement. The methodological basis of the research included a set of techniques and methods for studying this phenomenon of social life. The study revealed that juvenile delinquency remains a serious problem. The negative trend related to the worsening economic situation and lowering living standard in Russia, including minors, results in the higher psychological and emotional overload and the deepening crisis in family relations, which leads to the reemergence of such social phenomenon as child neglect. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that this paper assesses the criminological features of the current state of juvenile delinquency. The theoretical significance of the research includes the deeper scientific analysis of the problem, which provides a scientific basis for its further development. The practical significance implies that the theoretical conclusions obtained in this study can be used for further study of juvenile delinquency and developing measures for its prevention.

  • Public Administration and the Protection of Private Rights: Questioning Its Recognition and Application Under Ukrainian Law

    Every society needs the recognition and protection of the rights of its citizens, and this becomes more proper for every administration in respecting this protection for the common good of its society. In this article, international experience of protecting private rights in the sphere of public administration has been analyzed. On the basis of the researched information the authors have provided concrete ways of implementing the specified international experience into domestic state and his legal system. The essence and characteristic features of legal ways to protect the legitimate interests of private individuals within public relations have been clarified among other things. The genesis of the development of the ways to protect private rights in the sphere of public administration has been analyzed. Particular attention has been paid to the insufficient capacity of Ukraine to ensure the inviolability of private rights, freedoms and interests of the entities of public legal relations, compared to the developed countries of Western Europe and North America. At the same time, the emphasis has been made on the gradual increase in the level of democracy and the rule of law in Ukraine over the last 20 years. It has been claimed that a special “acceleration” of the indicated reforms took place immediately after two socially important events, namely the Orange Revolution of 2004 and the Revolution of Dignity of 2013-2014. However, the so-called “energy fervor” gained at the beginning of the reform is slowing down in Ukraine.

  • Assessing and Evaluating the General Legal Characteristics of War Crimes: A Basic Necessity or a Confused Platform

    The general legal characteristics of war crimes allow to comprehensively study the indicated acts, to understand their essence, which in turn should facilitate and improve the quality of criminal qualification of criminal offenses against performing the established procedure of active service. The need to form general legal characteristics of war crimes is due to the fact that the sphere of public relations related to active service is intersectoral, since it is simultaneously regulated by the norms of various branches of law. The authors have found out the main features of war crimes and have carried out their characteristics by determining the specific features of their regulation both by criminal and other branches of law. The authors have provided an analytical basis for this in order to evaluate the provisions of regulatory legal acts regulating the procedure of active service and determine the main features of war crimes. The findings of the research was that war crimes infringe the statutory order of performing active service, and the subjects of such illegal acts are military personnel, persons liable to military duty and personnel with reserve obligations during the battle assembly. The general legal characteristics of war crimes is formed taking into account criminal and legal features of the specified criminal offenses and defines specific features of active service; the established procedure for performing active service; military personnel, persons liable to military duty and personnel with reserve obligations during the battle assembly as subjects of crime.

  • Respect of Human Rights and Freedoms During the Examination of a Person Within Criminal Proceedings: Issues of Theory and Practice

    Even though it becomes the responsibility of crime official to carry out the investigative phase so as to established commission, such procedure should be done by respecting the fundamental right of everyone. A person’s examination within criminal proceedings belongs to a range of investigative actions of restrictive nature. In this regard, the respect of human rights and freedoms becomes especially relevant during its conduction. According to experience in this field, law enforcement officers have questions on determining the subjects of this procedural action, the limits of applying coercion and the involvement of attesting witnesses. Systematic analysis of the Art. 241 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine demonstrated that the provisions set out in this Article are not sufficiently clear. That gives origins to the violations of human rights and freedoms. The authors have made a categorical conclusion about the need to improve the current regulations of the procedure for conducting examination within criminal proceedings. According to the results of the research, the authors have introduced scientifically sound proposals to improve the Ukrainian legislation concerning the procedure for conducting the investigation process.

  • Editorial
  • Movilidad humana y COVID-19: violaciones de derechos humanos por el cierre de fronteras en Brasil

    La pandemia COVID-19 desencadenó una serie de medidas restrictivas para la movilidad humana en todo el mundo con el fin de contener la propagación del virus; sin embargo, muchas de ellas son inapropiadas o desproporcionadas para los fines previstos de salud pública o violan disposiciones de derechos humanos. Este artículo trata la cuestión de cómo algunas respuestas de emergencia para contener una crisis de salud, a través de medidas que restrinjan el ingreso de extranjeros a un país violan los derechos humanos de las personas en situación de movilidad, utilizando el caso brasileño como contexto de análisis. El artículo problematiza el debate sobre la seguridad de fronteras en el contexto de la pandemia. La metodología utilizada consiste en un análisis de todas las ordenanzas ministeriales (administrativas) emitidas por el gobierno federal en 2020 sobre restricciones temporales al ingreso de extranjeros en Brasil durante la pandemia COVID-19, y critica las disposiciones que violan los derechos humanos de las personas en situación de movilidad, que se desvían de los estándares establecidos en la normativa en materia de salud y derechos humanos.

  • Niñez migrante en Colombia: grises del aclamado estatuto temporal de protección

    En el presente trabajo se analiza críticamente el enfoque de niñez del Estatuto Temporal de Protección para Migrantes Venezolanos adoptado por Colombia en marzo de 2021, para preguntarse si este responde a las necesidades de protección de los niños venezolanos. El Estatuto reconoce que contar con un estatus migratorio regular es un paso previo y necesario para la garantía plena de sus derechos. Por lo tanto, en un primer momento, se considera cómo el Estado colombiano respondió a algunos entre los principales retos de protección de la niñez venezolana en Colombia y se evidencian los vacíos que permanecen en estas actuaciones. Posteriormente, se profundiza en la forma en que el Estatuto pretende garantizar el acceso a un estatus migratorio regular a los niños y, con ello, la protección y garantía de sus derechos. El trabajo concluye que el Estatuto es un avance necesario pero insuficiente para la protección de los derechos de los niños migrantes en Colombia. Esto es así porque sigue perpetuando una visión limitada y sesgada de la migración y promueve la creación de un doble estándar de protección que perjudica a niños de nacionalidades diferentes a la venezolana.

  • Las mujeres víctimas de trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual. Los nexos con el patriarcado y un negocio dentro del capitalismo

    El presente artículo hace una aproximación hacia la realidad que viven las mujeres víctimas de trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual, desde una perspectiva sociológica y jurídica que va más allá de la visión sancionatoria ejercida por los estados. Abordar la trata de personas únicamente enfocada en la restricción, el control y la expansión del poder punitivo del Estado para localizar y perseguir a los tratantes de personas solo ha generado la revictimización de los cuerpos explotados con la trata. En este contexto, estudiarla desde otra esfera interdisciplinaria permite visibilizar la trata como una práctica generada por el patriarcalismo y como un negocio impulsado por los estados y las empresas nacionales e internacionales que activan los flujos comerciales y operan dentro del sistema capitalista. Por ello, este trabajo realiza una breve conceptualización de la trata de personas, describe las nuevas modalidades bajo las cuales opera la trata de personas que les ha permitido esconderse de los controles impulsados por los estados, en donde se identifica que los tratantes han generado mínimos de legalidad dentro y fuera de las fronteras de los países para poder operar con regularidad. Finalmente concluye puntualizando y mostrando la trata de personas como una dinámica violenta y eminentemente patriarcal, en donde se destacan cifras que muestran que el colectivo social más vulnerable explotado por la trata son las mujeres.

  • Los efectos del cambio climático: otra razón para repensar las políticas migratorias

    Son muchos los retos globales que se avecinan; sin embargo, dentro de las discusiones en materia de política pública y legislación, poco se abordan las movilidades humanas como producto de los impactos del cambio climático. Si bien es cierto que el estudio de la relación entre migración y cambio climático es intrincado en comparación con los análisis que enfatizan en otras causas de las movilidades humanas, el escenario mundial que se proyecta demanda poner más atención en este factor. Este panorama mundial exige acciones de los gobiernos nacionales, así como repensar la racionalidad política con que actualmente se regula y gestiona el fenómeno migratorio. Por consiguiente, este trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis teórico de las principales posturas políticas en torno al fenómeno migratorio que han asumido los países y discutir hasta qué punto son pertinentes con las exigencias futuras en materia de cambio climático. La metodología empleada es analítica y parte de la base de descomponer en todas sus partes y tipos las principales políticas migratorias y contrastarlas con las legislaciones y acciones ejecutadas por los países y comunidades internacionales. Todo ello para establecer que las principales racionalidades políticas con las que se regula y gestiona el tema migratorio son insuficientes para atender las consecuencias de un fenómeno global e inevitable como el cambio climático.

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